Sun Tzu's five rules regarding the psychological use of surprise in chaotic situations.
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This article explains how, in the generally chaotic conditions of competition, no one's actions truly control the situation. The situation as a whole is determined by the complex, unpredictable interactions of actions and events in the environment (). However, when we perceive that someone has momentum within a chaotic situation, that perception alone creates a psychological advantage. For those who understand its nature, that short-term subjective advantage can be transformed into longer-term, objective gains in position.